^ Pfatteicher, Philip H. (1990). Commentary on the Lutheran Book of Worship: Lutheran Liturgy in Its Ecumenical Context. Augsburg Fortress Publishers. pp. 223–244, 260. ISBN 9780800603922. The Good Friday fast became the principal fast in the calendar, and even after the Reformation in Germany many Lutherans who observed no other fast scrupulously kept Good Friday with strict fasting.
In the religions of ancient peoples and civilizations, fasting was a practice to prepare persons, especially priests and priestesses, to approach the deities. In the Hellenistic mystery religions (e.g., the healing cult of the god Asclepius), the gods were thought to reveal their divine teachings in dreams and visions only after a fast that required the total dedication of the devotees. Among the pre-Columbian peoples of Peru, fasting often was one of the requirements for penance after an individual had confessed sins before a priest. In many cultures the practice was considered a means to assuage an angered deity or to aid in resurrecting a deity who was believed to have died (e.g., a god of vegetation).
The Old Testament law specifically required prayer and fasting for only one occasion, which was the Day of Atonement. This custom became known as "the day of fasting" (Jeremiah 36:6) or "the Fast" (Acts 27:9). Moses fasted during the 40 days and 40 nights he was on Mount Sinai receiving the law from God (Exodus 34:28). King Jehoshaphat called for a fast in all Israel when they were about to be attacked by the Moabites and Ammonites (2 Chronicles 20:3). In response to Jonah's preaching, the men of Nineveh fasted and put on sackcloth (Jonah 3:5). Prayer and fasting was often done in times of distress or trouble. David fasted when he learned that Saul and Jonathan had been killed (2 Samuel 1:12). Nehemiah had a time of prayer and fasting upon learning that Jerusalem was still in ruins (Nehemiah 1:4). Darius, the king of Persia, fasted all night after he was forced to put Daniel in the den of lions (Daniel 6:18).
It requires less time (and potentially less money). Rather than having to prepare or purchase three to six meals a day, you only need to prepare two meals. Instead of stopping what you’re doing six times a day to eat, you simply only have to stop to eat twice. Rather than having to do the dishes six times, you only have to do them twice. Rather than having to purchase six meals a day, you only need to purchase two.
By taking our eyes off the things of this world through prayer and biblical fasting, we can focus better on Christ. Matthew 6:16-18 declares, "When you fast, do not look somber as the hypocrites do, for they disfigure their faces to show men they are fasting. I tell you the truth, they have received their reward in full. But when you fast, put oil on your head and wash your face, so that it will not be obvious to men that you are fasting, but only to your Father, who is unseen; and your Father, who sees what is done in secret, will reward you."
Because it simplifies your day. Rather than having to prepare, pack, eat, and time your meals every 2-3 hours, you simply skip a meal or two and only worry about eating food in your eating window. It’s one less decision you have to make every day. It could allow you to enjoy bigger portioned meals (thus making your tastebuds and stomach satiated) and STILL eat fewer calories on average.
Jesus was indicating that fasting would become a necessity when, the bridegroom (Jesus) was taken away. While Jesus, who was God manifested in human form, was still on earth, His followers enjoyed a close fellowship and friendship with Him. Jesus bestowed power and authority on them to the extent that they had limited power to preach, heal the sick, and cast out devils. Similarly, when Jesus sent them out to minister to the populace, He instructed them to take few provisions. “Then Jesus asked them, ‘When I sent you without purse, bag or sandals, did you lack anything?’ ‘Nothing,’ they answered. He said to them, ‘But now if you have a purse, take it, and also a bag; and if you don't have a sword, sell your cloak and buy one’” (Luke 22:35-36).
All Oriental Orthodox churches practice fasting; however, the rules of each church differ. All churches require fasting before one receives Holy Communion. All churches practice fasting on most Wednesdays and Fridays throughout the year as well as observing many other days. Monks and nuns also observe additional fast days not required of the laity.
And because you retain this muscle, your metabolism won’t drop the way it might with calorie-restricted weight loss. In fact, fasting actually boosts your metabolism, says Tinsley. “There’s a misconception that your metabolic rate will decrease if you’re not eating. If you’re fasting, your body views it as a mild stress, so research actually that shows your resting metabolism is actually higher after an overnight fast, and 16-24 hours is the window in which you see the largest increase in fat burn,” he explains.
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Once or twice per week you can have a treat. Remember you will have 600-1000 calories to work with in the main meal. This should make it pretty easy to enjoy some of your favorite foods or go out to a restaurant with friends/family. Just make sure to not go over the calorie budget for the day. If you do end up going over the calorie budget for the day then you can compensate by slightly reducing calories the following days.
Whether a regimen calls for two fasting days a week or eating your meals in a smaller "window" of time in the day, all plans share a near-freedom from calorie counting, a big plus for weary food diarists. Once you have planned your fasting-period menu—say, a 500-calorie day of chicken and veggies—you're set. And in your nonfasting periods, you eat normal, healthy meals (even that steak!) without worrying about every bite.
We tend to think of fasting as going without food. But we can fast from anything. If we love music and decide to miss a concert in order to spend time with God, that is fasting. It is helpful to think of the parallel of human friendship. When friends need to be together, they will cancel all other activities in order to make that possible. There’s nothing magical about fasting. It’s just one way of telling God that your priority at that moment is to be alone with him, sorting out whatever is necessary, and you have cancelled the meal, party, concert, or whatever else you had planned to do in order to fulfil that priority. [James I (J. I.) Packer].
Fasting calls us to turn away from food. Fasting calls us to redivert our attention back to the things of God and His commandments. Fasting calls us to face and overcome the devil's call: "Has God really said you can't have this?" Fasting calls us to abstain from all things harmful for us, and in most cases, from all food for a period of time. The devil's insistent question is likely to become very loud in our minds as we begin a fast: "Has God really said you can't eat? Not anything? Not the things you love the most? Has God really called you to fast- to abstain totally from this thing that you have labeled as 'good'?"
Abstinence from food and/or drink as an element of private or public religious devotion. Fasting is nowhere commanded in the Torah and, in fact, is never attested earlier than the time of the judges of Israel (cf. Judges 20:26 ). The fact that Jesus and the disciples sanctioned it by their own example ( Matt 4:2 ; Acts 13:2-3 ), however, is sufficient justification for its practice in biblical times and, in fact, in modern times as well.
Fasting must also be done in an attitude of humility. It is not necessary for others to know we are fasting; it is directed towards God. “But when you fast, put oil on your head and wash your face, so that it will not be obvious to men that you are fasting, but only to your Father, who is unseen; and your Father, who sees what is done in secret, will reward you” (Matthew 6:17-18).
Fasting can be used for nearly every chronic condition, including allergies, anxiety, arthritis, asthma, depression, diabetes, headaches, heart disease, high cholesterol, low blood sugar, digestive disorders, mental illness, and obesity. Fasting is an effective and safe weight loss method. It is frequently prescribed as a detoxification treatment for those with conditions that may be influenced by environmental factors, such as cancer and multiple chemical sensitivity. Fasting has been used successfully to help treat people who have been exposed to high levels of toxic materials due to accident or occupation. Fasting is thought to be beneficial as a preventative measure to increase overall health, vitality, and resistance to disease. Fasting is also used as a method of mental and spiritual rejuvenation.
As long as you are in a calorie deficit then meal timing is irrelevant. In some cases large late night meals have been shown to preserve muscle mass better on a diet and result in a greater loss in body fat percentage. I highly recommend reading Martin Berkhan’s article on the subject – Is Late Night Eating Better for Fat loss and Health. Check out this post for more on the differences between the Kinobody approach and LeanGains (Martin Berkhan’s approach).
^ Jump up to: a b Hatch, Jane M. (1978). The American Book of Days. Wilson. p. 163. ISBN 9780824205935. Special religious services are held on Ash Wednesday by the Church of England, and in the United States by Episcopal, Lutheran, and some other Protestant churches. The Episcopal Church prescribes no rules concerning fasting on Ash Wednesday, which is carried out according to members' personal wishes; however, it recommends a measure of fasting and abstinence as a suitable means of marking the day with proper devotion. Among Lutherans as well, there are no set rules for fasting, although some local congregations may advocate this form of penitence in varying degrees.
The problem is that too many people jump on the fasting bandwagon without understanding how to assess its impact. Once a plan has been integrated into your everyday life, you should take time every week or month to analyze how things are going. Even if weight loss is your primary goal, it’s important to consider how fasting is affecting other aspects of your health, such as your energy levels, ability to exercise and digestion. Here are some questions you should ask yourself.
Most of us have contemplated going on a diet. When we find a diet that appeals to us, it seems as if it will be a breeze to do. But when we get into the nitty gritty of it, it becomes tough. For example, I stay on a low–carb diet almost all the time. But if I think about going on a low–fat diet, it looks easy. I think about bagels, whole wheat bread and jelly, mashed potatoes, corn, bananas by the dozen, etc. — all of which sound appealing. But were I to embark on such a low–fat diet I would soon tire of it and wish I could have meat and eggs. So a diet is easy in contemplation, but not so easy in the long–term execution.
If you really want to lose fat, intermittent fasting is the perfect tool. Research shows that intermittent fasting — cycling in and out periods of fasting and eating — has huge benefits for your body and brain. It can ward off chronic disease, improve memory and brain function, and boost your energy levels. What’s more, intermittent fasting is a powerful hack for losing weight quickly, and keeping it off.
When I started intermittent fasting, I spent a lot of time thinking about how I wasn’t eating. I would think about how hungry I was, and then, when it came time to break my fast, I would eat more than a regular dinner, thinking I deserved it after having fasted all day. This is how people fail at intermittent fasting. It took me about two weeks to figure it out.
Reduces inflammation: Lowering inflammation is key to losing weight, boosting longevity, and reducing your risk of major illnesses such as Alzheimer’s and cancer. That’s why it’s at the core of the Bulletproof Diet. Intermittent fasting decreases oxidative stress and inflammation across the board, including inflammatory markers such as adiponectin, leptin, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor.
As you can see all of the sample intermittent fasting meals included in the fat loss diet have a convenient source of protein, fruit and some healthy fats. This food combination is what I have personally found to be the most effective for staying satisfied on low calorie meals. The fruit is highly nutritious, easily digestible and is effective at replenishing liver glycogen.
To keep my energy levels up during strength training, I use a couple of pre-workout supplements: For energy and pump I take Naked Energy (It’s Keto Approved), and for strength and endurance I mix in a scoop of Julian Bakery exogenous ketones. I have found that this really takes my workouts to the next level. I always suggest getting these two supplements to anyone that wants to get into keto.
The findings were clear: Fasting just five days per month improved people’s health outcomes. The group that fasted lost weight (about 7 pounds on average), lost some body fat, lowered their blood pressure, and decreased their IGF-1, a genetic marker for diseases such as cancer. (Their total cholesterol, blood glucose, and triglycerides didn’t budge.)
Finally, fasting was frequently associated with supplicatory prayer. David prayed and fasted over his sick child ( 2 Sam 12:16 ), weeping before the Lord in earnest intercession (vv. 21-22). Nehemiah, having heard of Jerusalem's desolation, wept, fasted, and prayed that God would give him favor with King Artaxerxes of Persia so that he might return to his homeland and repair its ruins ( Neh 1:4-11 ). Esther, under similar circumstances, urged Mordecai and the Jews to fast for her as she planned to appear before her husband the king ( Esther 4:16 ). Clearly, fasting and petition are here one and the same (cf. Jer 14:12 ).
In section 109, of the same book, Yudhishthira asks Bheesma "what is the highest, most beneficial" and fruitful "of all kinds of fasts in the world". Bheeshma says "fasting on the 12th day of the lunar month" and worship Krishna, for the whole year. Krishna is worshipped in twelve forms as Kesava, Narayana, Madhava, Govinda, Vishnu, the slayer of Madhu, who covered the universe in three steps, the dwarf (who beguiled Mahabali), Sridhara, Hrishikesha, Padmanabha, Damodara, Pundhariksha. and Upendra. After fasting, one must feed a number of brahmans. Bheeshma says " the illustrious Vishnu, that ancient being, has himself said that there is no fast that possesses merit superior to what attach to fast of this kind." 
The fasting periods were often called ‘cleanses’, ‘detoxifications’, or ‘purifications’, but the idea is the same – to abstain from eating food for a certain period of time for health reasons. People imagined that this period of abstinence from food would clear their bodies’ systems of toxins and rejuvenate them. They were more correct than they knew.
An informative description of the proclamation of a fast is in Jeremiah 36:9. There the people of Judah convened, apparently for the purpose of national repentance. This at least is what Jeremiah instructed Baruch to encourage them to do (vv. 7-8). Moreover, Jeremiah refers to the anticipated event as a "day of fasting" (v. 6), suggesting a common practice known to him and the people generally. In fact, Isaiah had spoken of such convocations a century earlier ( 58:3-6 ), gatherings on special days for special purposes. Regardless of Isaiah's feelings about the abuse of fasting, it is obvious that he recognized it as a legitimate form of worship and that he found no fault with it being carried out on specially called occasions.
You can theoretically eat whatever you want when you're on an IF plan (and not in the fasting phase), but if you overdo the carbs, you'll have trouble keeping your blood sugar stable. Refined carbs, in particular, make your blood sugar rise and your insulin spike and crash. So if you're trying to go without food for longer periods and your diet is too carb-heavy, you're going to end up pretty hungry and irritable.
Also, if you eat a big dinner the night before, I think you’ll be surprised by how much energy you have in the morning. Most of the worries or concerns that people have about intermittent fasting are due to the fact that they have had it pounded into them by companies that they need to eat breakfast or they need to eat every three hours and so on. The science doesn’t support it and neither do my personal experiences.
A healthy person who is not perspiring much can go without food and water for about three days before the body begins to be stressed. And a healthy person can go without food for several days if he is drinking water. Thus, the amazingly long 40-day fasts by Moses, Elijah and Jesus Christ (Deuteronomy 9:9 Deuteronomy 9:9When I was gone up into the mount to receive the tables of stone, even the tables of the covenant which the LORD made with you, then I stayed in the mount forty days and forty nights, I neither did eat bread nor drink water:
Although I do not fast like you do (from sunrise to sunset) I do continue to fast not just to maintain my weight but to free the mind and body or the extra weight and burdens that it must carry. You see when your stomach is not full and your mind is not sluggish from trying to digest a heavy meal you start to have more energy think clearer, sleep better and feel better. When you can have this in your life for free why not take it. Some people spend thousands to have access to these feelings when we can experience a little bit of this each week.
The devil comes at us the same way. The devil never tells us that drinking alcohol can make a person an alcoholic. He never tells a person that smoking cigarettes can cause him or her to have lung cancer. He never tells a person that eating too much of the wrong foods can lead to chronic illness and premature death. The devil points out only short-term benefits, never long-term disasters.
Tisha B'Av and Yom Kippur are the major fasts and are observed from sunset to the following day's dusk. The remaining four fasts are considered minor and optional fasting is only observed from sunrise to dusk. Both men and women can choose to observe them, and a rabbi may give a dispensation if the fast represents too much of a hardship to a sick or weak person, or pregnant or nursing woman.
Human growth hormone, or HGH, is naturally produced by the body, but remains active in the bloodstream for just a few minutes. It’s been effectively used to treat obesity and help build muscle mass, important for burning fat. HGH also helps increase muscle strength, which can help improve your workouts, too. Combine these together and you have an effective fat-burning machine on your hands.
Although the findings with mice are well established there’s less evidence that time restricted eating works for humans. One human study found significant weight loss when participants fasted for 11 hours overnight compared with control conditions. Another study found a 4.1 percent weight loss resulting from consuming a single meal in the afternoon although self-reported hunger was greater the next morning. Other studies haven’t supported night-time fasting for humans so it’s too early to draw definitive conclusions but you might want to experiment to see if it would work for you.
If your doctor has told you that you're in danger of developing diabetes, ask him or her if IF is worth a try. This type of eating plan may help your cells become more sensitive to insulin, says Foroutan. The reason: Every time you eat, your body releases the hormone insulin in an attempt to shuttle sugar from your bloodstream into your cells for energy. But people who are prediabetic are insulin resistant, which means the cells in your body don't respond well to insulin and can't take up glucose so your blood sugar levels stay elevated. Going longer between eating may help because it requires your body to pump out insulin less often.
I recommend counting calories—not forever, but for about two weeks—so you get a feel for what a regular day of eating feels like. I have used and like Cron-o-meter, Lose It!, and Fitbit to track calories. Don’t get bogged down in the details. If a type of food you ate is not in the database, find something similar or make an educated guess. You just want to make sure you’re in the ballpark.
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Fasts may last for varying lengths of time -- one day, three days, seven days, and more. We should prayerfully seek the Lord about the length of our fast. Fasting should have an object in mind; we should have a clear idea of the need and purpose. One of the most pressing reasons for Christian fasting may be revival -- “Will you not revive us again...” (Psalm 85:6).
Physiologically, calorie restriction has been shown in animals to increase lifespan and improve tolerance to various metabolic stresses in the body.  Although the evidence for caloric restriction in animal studies is strong, there is less convincing evidence in human studies. Proponents of the diet believe that the stress of intermittent fasting causes an immune response that repairs cells and produces positive metabolic changes (reduction in triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, blood pressure, weight, fat mass, blood glucose). [3,5] An understandable concern of this diet is that followers will overeat on non-fasting days to compensate for calories lost during fasting. However, studies have not shown this to be true when compared with other weight loss methods. 
The discipline of fasting entails that, apart from Saturdays, Sundays, and holy feasts, one should keep a total fast from all food and drink from midnight the night before to a certain time in the day usually three o'clock in the afternoon (the hour Jesus died on the Cross). Also, it is preferred that one reduce one's daily intake of food, typically by eating only one full meal a day.