^ Pfatteicher, Philip H. (1990). Commentary on the Lutheran Book of Worship: Lutheran Liturgy in Its Ecumenical Context. Augsburg Fortress Publishers. pp. 223–244, 260. ISBN 9780800603922. The Good Friday fast became the principal fast in the calendar, and even after the Reformation in Germany many Lutherans who observed no other fast scrupulously kept Good Friday with strict fasting.

There were [no statistical] differences between the low- and high- [meal frequency] groups for adiposity indices, appetite measurements or gut peptides (peptide YY and ghrelin) either before or after the intervention. We conclude that increasing meal frequency does not promote greater body weight loss under the conditions described in the present study.
While these five methods are the most well-known in terms of integrating periods of fasting into your eating schedule, there are many other similar philosophies based on meal timing. For those who prefer a more fluid, less rigid method, there’s also the concept of eating intuitively. Primal Diet proponent Mark Sisson is a supporter of the Eat WHEN (When Hunger Ensues Naturally) method, where dieters simply eat whenever their bodies ask them to. However, some believe this can also lead to overeating or overconsumption of calories, since our bodies’ hunger-induced choices may be more caloric than otherwise.
What if we told you that the answer to losing weight, improving body composition, and feeling better isn’t about dieting, but instead skipping meals every once in a while? For some, intermittent fasting, or going a longer period of time — usually between 14 and 36 hours — with few to no calories, can be a lot easier than you may think. And the benefits might be worth it. If you think about it, all of us “fast” every single day — we just call it sleeping. Intermittent fasting just means extending that fasting period, and being a bit more conscious of your eating schedule overall. But is it right for you? And which method is best?
Now I'm certainly not linking the devil to a piece of pie, but I am saying this: the devil will always call your attention repeatedly to the thing that is harmful for you, but he will do it in a way that makes you feel deprived if you don't indulge in eating, drinking, or partaking of what is harmful. The implication of the devil is always: "This is so good. Has God really said you can't have any of this good thing?"

That’s the principle behind the diet method known as intermittent fasting. Unlike many popular diets, intermittent fasting has the backing of scientific research (including a massive 2017 study analysis by the International Society of Sports Nutrition), which suggests that intermittent fasting is just as effective as daily calorie restriction—sometimes better—at improving body composition. Furthermore, intermittent fasting doesn’t involve any calorie counting, and may suppress hunger better than traditional low-calorie diets.
Tisha B'Av and Yom Kippur are the major fasts and are observed from sunset to the following day's dusk. The remaining four fasts are considered minor and optional fasting is only observed from sunrise to dusk.[90] Both men and women can choose to observe them,[91] and a rabbi may give a dispensation if the fast represents too much of a hardship to a sick or weak person, or pregnant or nursing woman.
If you find yourself eating that sandwich, and start to beat yourself up, stop. We as humans fail at many things, but God’s love is proven time and time again. Eating on the fast does not make you a failure. To be considered a good hitter in baseball you only need to hit thirty percent of the time at-bat. If you eat something you meant to be fasting, just get back into the fast and finish strong.

Dear Adrian, I'm back after several months off on again off again tries. I actually did lose a total of 12 lbs. I started out at around 152 lbs and within a month & a half I was dropped down to 140! I was so happy... But unfortunately I over did an exercise routine of yours so badly I was unable to walk without pain shooting up my legs. ABSOLUTELY NO FAULT OF YOURS! I am the idiot for getting so excited about losing weight I got the attitude of " the more , the better" I advice to anyone don't ever over do anything cause it will have repercussions!! Long story short - after the awful pain I brought on my body I gave up on everything! It took a while to gain the lbs back but unfortunately it is now the end of September 2018 & I'm not only back to 150lbs but more like 158!!! I have started back with Adrian's trusted program & I pray I don't give up or ever, ever OVER DO IT!! I will keep you posted!
Fasting or intermittent calorie restriction may affect cancer and tumor development, but are not currently used as a form of treating cancer.[5][6] In 2011, the American Cancer Society recommended that people undergoing chemotherapy increase their intake of protein and calories,[6] but provided evidence that a short-term period of fasting may have benefits during chemotherapy.[5][7] Chronic fasting is not recommended for people with cancer at risk for weight loss or a suppressed immune system.[5]
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